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History of golf instruction Various authorities have credited any number of peoples - Celts, Romans, Huns, or a band of leisure loving Visigoths - with the invention of golf in its earliest form. But the story of golf instruction begins rightly in the medieval era (no later than 1353), when golfers adopted the principle of allowing each team to hit a second uninterrupted shot.
History of government in Swindon The history of government in Swindon has its origins in the Middle Ages. Its history is marked by a long period of very little change and, since the 19th Century, a constant period of redevelopment and re-adjustment.
History of gravitational theory In physics, theories of gravitation postulate mechanisms of interaction governing the movements of bodies with mass. There have been numerous theories of gravitation since the time of the Greek philosopher Aristotle in the 4th century BC.
History of Gabon During the last seven centuries, Bantu groups arrived in Gabon from several directions to escape enemies or find new land. Little is known of tribal life before European contact, but tribal art suggests a rich cultural heritage.
History of Georgia (U.S. state) The History of Georgia ranges from its Pre-Columbian settlement by Native American peoples to its modern status as a rapidly growing part of the United States. In the intervening time, Georgia was a British colony, a state of the U.
History of Georgia Tech The history of the Georgia Institute of Technology began shortly after the American Civil War and extends nearly 150 years. In that time, the Institute has undergone significant change, expanding from a small trade school to the largest technological institution in the Southeastern United States.
History of German The history of German as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. Old High German, Middle High German and Early Modern High German span the duration of the Holy Roman Empire.
History of Germany This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. It begins with the birth of the nation from Ancient Roman times to the 8th century, and then continues into the Holy Roman Empire dating from the 9th century until 1806.
History of Germany during World War II When in 1933 Hitler gained power, the world was little, if at all, aware of the intensity and duration of the armed conflict that would follow in just a few short years. When conditions reached their climax and the Second World War came in 1939, the Western democracies were shocked at the speed at which Poland fell, given that they had seen the Polish army defeat the vast Soviet Union less than a generation before at the Battle of Warsaw (1920).
History of Ghana Ghana was previously called the Gold Coast, but was renamed Ghana upon independence in 1957, because of indications that the inhabitants were descended from migrants who moved south from the ancient Ghana Empire.
History of Gmail Gmail was announced amid a flurry of rumor. Owing to April Fool's Day, however, the company's press release was greeted with skepticism in the technology world, especially since Google already had been known to make April Fool's Jokes (such as PigeonRank).
History of Gnosticism The History of Gnosticism is subject to a great deal of debate and interpretation. The complex nature of Gnostic teaching and the fact that much of the material relating to the schools comprising Gnosticism has traditionally come from critiques by orthodox Christians make it difficult to be precise about early sectarian gnostic systems, although Neoplatonists like Plotinus also criticized "Gnostics.
History of Go The game of Go originated in China. No one knows when the first game was played, but by the 6th century BC it was considered a worthy pastime for a gentleman, and described as such in the Analects of Confucius.
History of Goa The ancient Hindu city of Goa, of which hardly a fragment survives, was built at the southernmost point of the island, and it was famous in early Hindu legend and history. In the Puranas and certain inscriptions, the name of the place appears as Gove, Govapuri, and Gomant.
History of Greenland The history of Greenland, the world's largest island, is the history of life under extreme Arctic conditions: an ice-cap covers about 95 percent of the island, largely restricting human activity to the coasts. Greenland was unknown to Europeans until the 10th century, when Icelandic and Norwegian Vikings discovered it.
History of Guadeloupe First inhabited by Arawak Amerindians, then by the Carib tribe, the island was finally "discovered" by Christopher Columbus in 1493. Little was done with the island until after the French took possession of it in the 17th century.
History of Guam The history of Guam involves phases including the early arrival of people known today as the ancient Chamorros, the development of "pre-contact" society, Spanish colonization, and the present American rule of the island. Guam's history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islands.
History of Gujarat Situated on the western coast of India, the name of the state is derived from GujjarÄtta (Gurjar RÄshtra), which means the land of the Gujjars or khazars. It is believed that a tribe of Gujjars migrated to India around the 5th century.
History of Guyana Guyana has not been peopled for thousands of years before Europeans became aware of the area some 500 years ago. Guyana's past is punctuated by battles fought and won, possessions lost and regained as the Spanish, French, Dutch and British wrangled for centuries to own and exploit this land.
History of homosexual people in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust Before the beginning of World War II, homosexuals in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. However, upon the rise of Adolf Hitler, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of several groups targeted by the Nazi Party.
History of Haiti The recorded history of Haiti began in December 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean Sea. It was inhabited by the TaĂno, an Arawakan people, who variously called their island Ayiti, Bohio or Kiskeya.
History of Hamilton, Ontario The History of Hamilton, Ontario contains only the history before 1946 of the area governed by Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, since its amalgamation in 2001. For other aspects of the city, please consult the main article.
History of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania The History of Harrisburg, the state capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States, has occupied a central place in the development of the nation's industrial history, from its origins as a trading outpost to the present. Harrisburg has played a critical role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, and the Industrial Revolution.
History of Hawaii The history of Hawaii includes phases of early Polynesian settlement, British discovery, Euro-American and Asian immigration, the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, and admission to the United States as a territory and then a state. This subject is also presented in capsule form.
History of Helsinki Helsinki was founded by Swedish King Gustav Vasa in 1550 as the Swedish town of Helsingfors. Gustav intended for the town to serve the purpose of consolidating trade in the southern part of Finland and providing a competitor to Reval (today: Tallinn), a nearby Hanseatic League city which dominated local trade at the time.
History of Hobart The first settlement in Hobart was started in 1803 as a penal colony at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804 it was moved to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivan's Cove.
History of Hong Kong Hong Kong, a coastal city in southern China, has evolved from a fishing village, salt production site, trading and military port into an international financial centre that enjoys the world's ninth highest GNP per capita,Rank Order - GDP - per capita (PPP) (from CIA - the World Factbook and supports a third of foreign capital flows into China.
History of chemistry The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). Both alchemy and chemistry are concerned with the nature of matter and its transformations but, in contrast with alchemists, chemists apply the scientific method.
History of child sexual abuse as a social problem Child sexual abuse has gained a great deal of public attention in the past few decades. Various factors in the recent years have generated such a public hysteria regarding sexual abuse that it has become one of the most high-profile crimes, especially in America.
History of Chatham Islands numismatics The history of Chatham Islands numismatics begins in 1999, when the Reserve Bank of New Zealand authorized a private organization, the Chatham Islands Note Corporation, to issue banknotes to celebrate that the Chatham Islands would have been the first land to enter the third millennium of the common era (although this is not actually true - this honour belongs to Big Diomede Island.
History of Chechnya Chechen society has traditionally been organized around many autonomous local clans, called teips. Even today, many Chechens consider themselves loyal to their teip and tukkhum above all, this is one reason why it has been difficult to forge a united political front against Russia.
History of Chelsea F.C. Chelsea Football Club, as one of the most famous Association Football clubs in England, has a long, unique and idiosyncratic history, and has experienced both the highs and the lows of the game. From its early days as the butt of a music hall joke for their lack of success, to being 1954-55 Champions following a revamp.
History of Chennai Chennai (ŕ®šŕŻ†ŕ®©ŕŻŤŕ®©ŕŻ in Tamil), formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fourth largest city, and is the knowledge hub of India. It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal.
History of Cheshire Cheshire in the Domesday Book was recorded as a much larger county than it is today. Its northern border was the River Ribble, and it was recorded with eighteen hundreds, six of which were north of the River Mersey.
History of China The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Xia Dynasty in the 21st century BC, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations.
History of Chinese animation The history of Chinese Animation began in the 20th century in the Republic of China when the people became fascinated with the idea of animation. A lengthy history interlocks between the art, politics and the ever-changing economy.
History of Chinese cuisine The History of Chinese cuisine is, in China, traced back to the Peking Man and his use of fire, and the invention of "cuisine" some 400,000 years ago. Some other accounts of the history of Chinese cuisine takes the beginning back to the Chinese stone age, where the cultivation of rice and the production of noodles, both typical representations of Chinese cuisine as we know it today, are known from archeological findings.
History of Christianity and homosexuality The history of early Christianity and homosexuality has been much debated. Some maintain Early Christian Churches deplored same-sex relationships, while others maintain they accepted these relationships on the level of their heterosexual counterparts.
History of ideas The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. The history of ideas is a sister-discipline to, or a particular approach within, intellectual history.
History of immigration to Canada The history of immigration to Canada extends back thousands of years. Anthropologists continue to argue over various possible models of migration to modern day Canada, as well as their pre-contact populations.
History of information technology auditing Information Technology Auditing (IT auditing) began as Electronic Data Process (EDP) Auditing and developed largely as a result of the rise in technology in accounting systems, the need for IT control, and the impact of computers on the ability to perform attestation services. The last few years have been an exciting time in the world of IT auditing as a result of the accounting scandals and increased regulation.
History of information theory The decisive event which established the discipline of information theory, and brought it to immediate worldwide attention, was the publication of Claude E. Shannon (1916â€“2001)'s classic paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" in the Bell System Technical Journal in July and October of 1948.
History of international law The history of international law examines the evolution of state practice and the doctrinal developments in international law. In that respect, it is different from international private law and comparative history of constitutional law.
History of intersex surgery Intersex surgery is one of several terms referring to surgery performed to correct birth defects due to intersex conditions or other causes, as well as early injuries of the genitalia. The primary intersex surgery article outlines the purposes of such surgery, the conditions for which it has most often been performed, and the different types of such surgeries over the last 50 years.
History of Idaho The History of Idaho is an examination of the human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, a geographical area in the Pacific Northwest (PNW, or PacNW) area on or near the west coast of United States and Canada. Other associated areas include southern Alaska, all of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, western Montana and northern California and Nevada.
History of Ilfracombe Ilfracombe has a long history, it has been settled since the iron age, its name is a derivative of the Anglo-Saxon Alfreincoma - by which name it was noted in the Exeter Domesday Book. The translation of this name (from Walter William Skeat of the department of Anglo Saxon at Cambridge University) means the "Valley of the sons of Alfred".
History of Independent Bulgaria The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. Based on that date Bulgarians celebrate Bulgaria's national day each year.
History of Independent Evangelical Churches in Australia Central Coast Evangelical Church, The Lakes Evangelical Church and Northern Lakes Evangelical Church are three evangelical churches on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia. These churches desire to be conservative in their theology, yet contemporary in their practice.
History of India The archaeological record in India (that is "Greater India" or the Indian subcontinent, encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. 34,000 years ago.
History of Indian Institutes of Technology The History of Indian Institutes of Technology refers to the history of the seven IITs namely IIT Kharagpur, IIT Bombay, IIT Kanpur, IIT Madras, IIT Delhi, IIT Guwahati, and IIT Roorkee. It is a collection of events and developments that had a bearing on their past and will affect their future.
History of Indonesia Indonesia is a country encompassing an archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the Equator. The area is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures, ethnicities, and languages.
History of Iran History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the "Iranian Cultural Continent" by the Encyclopedia Iranica)â€”- consisting of the modern nations Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and surrounding regions which is one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations. â€” covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilization on the Iranian plateau, Mannaeans civilization in Azarbaijan, Shahr-i Sokhta (Burned City) near Zabol in Sistan va Baluchestan, and the ancient Kingdom of Jiroft in Kerman followed by the kingdom of Elam and the Median, Achaemenid, the Parthian, the Sassanian dynasties and following Empires to the modern Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries.
History of Iraq This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. See also History of Mesopotamia, Chronology of the ancient orient, and History of the Middle East.
History of Ireland The first known human settlement in Ireland began around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. Few archaeological traces remain of this group, but their descendants and later arrivals were responsible for major Neolithic sites such as Newgrange.
History of Ireland (1801â€“1922) From 1801 to 1922 the whole island of Ireland formed a constituent part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (UK). For almost all of this period, Ireland was ruled directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London.
History of Isan The history of Isan has been determined by its geography: situated between Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, it has been dominated by each in turn, although its relative infertility meant it was more often a battleground than a prize. Rather than being incorporated into the respective empires of each power, the area was divided into statelets (muang) each paying tribute to one or more powers under the mandala system.
History of Islam in southern Italy The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details).
History of Islamic Philosophy The book History of Islamic Philosophy is a collection of essays by various authorities on Islam in the Routledge series History of World Philosophies and is edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr of George Washington University and Oliver Leaman of Liverpool John Moores University. The book has been well reviewed (the book jacket carries positive praise from the London University School of Oriental and African Studies).
History of Islamic Tripolitania and Cyrenaica With tenuous Byzantine control over Libya restricted to a few poorly defended coastal strongholds, the Arab horsemen who first crossed into Pentapolis, Cyrenaica in September 642 encountered little resistance. Under the command of Amr ibn al-A'as, the armies of Islam conquered Cyrenaica, renaming the city of Pentapolis, Burqa.
History of Israel This article describes the history of the modern State of Israel, from its Independence Proclamation in 1948 to the present. The independence of the modern State of Israel was achieved in 1948 after more than sixty years of efforts by Zionist leaders to establish sovereignty and self-determination in the Jewish National Homeland.
History of Italy United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. Important cultures and civilizations have existed there since prehistoric times.
History of jewellery in Ukraine Jewellery, as one of the art forms originated together with the human culture as one of its expressions. Ornamentation of body (which is essentially the purpose of jewellery) is known at least from the Stone Age.
History of Jacksonville, Florida The History of Jacksonville, Florida is the past occurrences in Jacksonville, Florida that shaped the way the city is today. The city began to grow in the late 18th century as Cowford, but it truly flourished in the time after American Civil War, becoming a winter vacation spot.
History of Japan The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period.
History of Jehovah's Witnesses The history of Jehovah's Witnesses dates from about 1870 when Charles Taze Russell began to lead a Bible study group in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Originally known as Bible Students, they experienced a major schism in 1917 as Joseph Franklin Rutherford began his presidency.
History of Jersey The island of Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. Jersey lies in the Bay of Mont St Michel and is the largest of the Channel Islands.
History of Jews in Poland The history of Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. It ranges from a long period of religious tolerance and prosperity for the country's Jewish population to the nearly complete genocidal destruction of the community by Nazi Germany in the twentieth century during the German occupation of Poland and the Holocaust.
History of Joseph the Carpenter The History of Joseph the Carpenter is one of the texts within the New Testament apocrypha concerned with period of Jesus' life before he was 12. The text is believed to date from 5th century CE (AD) text is framed as an explanation by Jesus on the Mount of Olives] as to the life of [[Saint Joseph|Joseph, his step-father.
History of Journalism The history of journalism, or the gathering and transmitting of news, spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism surmises, the steady increase of "the scope of news available to us and the speed with which it is transmitted."
History of Karachi The area of Karachi has been known to the ancient Greeks by many names. Krokola, the place where Alexander the Great camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia after his campaign in the Indus valley; 'Morontobara' port (probably the modern Manora Island near the Karachi harbor), from where Alexander's admiral Nearchus sailed for back home; and Barbarikon, a sea port of the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom.
History of Karnataka The recorded history of Karnataka goes back more than two millenia. Several great empires and dynasties have ruled over Karnataka and have contributed greatly to the history, culture and development of Karnataka.
History of Kazakhstan By far the largest of the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union, independent Kazakhstan is the world's ninth-largest nation in geographic area. The population density of Kazakhstan is among the lowest in the world, partly because the country includes large areas of inhospitable terrain.
History of Kiribati The I-Kiribati people (or Gilbertese) settled what would become known as the Gilbert Islands (named by von Krusenstern, an Estonian admiral of the Czar, in 1820, after a British captain, Thomas Gilbert) between 3000 and 2000 years ago. Subsequent invasions by Samoans and Tongans introduced Polynesian elements to the previously installed Micronesian culture and invasions by Fijians introduced Melanesian elements, but extensive intermarriage produced a population reasonably homogeneous in appearance, language and traditions.
History of Kochi Kochi (; Malayalam: ŕ´•ŕµŠŕ´šŕµŤŕ´šŕ´ż ); formerly known as Cochin) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. Kochi is located in the district of Ernakulam, about 220 km north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram.
History of lacrosse Lacrosse has its origins in a tribal game played by Plains Indians and Woodlands Natives in what is now the United States and Canada. It derives its name from the resemblance of its chief implement used, the curved netted stick, to a bishop's crozier.
History of landscape architecture The term landscape architecture was first used by Gilbert Laing Meason in his book On The Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy (London, 1828). Meason was born in Scotland and did not have the opportunity to visit Italy.
History of libertarianism Modern libertarians see themselves as having revived the original doctrine of liberalism, and often call themselves "libertarians" and "classical liberals" interchangeably. The term "classical liberalism" itself was coined in the 20th century, and applied retroactively to pre-1850 liberalism, to avoid confusion with an accepted modern definition of liberalism.
History of linguistics Linguistics as a study endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language and has been of scholarly interest throughout recorded history. Contemporary linguistics is the result of a continuous European intellectual traditionJames Burnett, Lord Monboddo, The Origin and Progress of Man and Language (6 volumes, 1773-1792) originating in ancient Greece that was later influenced by the ancient Indian tradition of linguistics due to the study of Sanskrit grammar by European linguists from the 18th century.
History of live action role-playing games Technically, many childhood games are simple LARPs (even though they don't bear that name), and so in that sense LARPs may have been around since the dawn of humanity. However, the invention of tabletop role-playing games in America in the 1970s, led to adults playing organized LARPs in much greater numbers than before.
History of local government in the United Kingdom The history of local government in the United Kingdom has its origins in the Middle Ages. Its history is marked by a long period of very little change and, since the 19th Century, a constant evolution of role and function.
History of logic The history of logic documents the development of logic as it occurs in various rival cultures and traditions in history. While many cultures have employed intricate systems of reasoning, logic as an explicit analysis of the methods of reasoning received sustained development originally only in three traditions: those of China, India, and Greece.
History of Lancashire Lancashire was established as a county in 1182, making it one of the youngest of the historic counties of England, although there is evidence that the boundaries of the county were settled as early as 1100. In the Domesday Book, its lands had been treated as part of Cheshire (the area south of the River Ribble) and of Yorkshire.
History of Landsbanki In establishing Landsbanki, the Icelandic parliament hoped to boost monetary transactions and encourage the countryâ€™s nascent industries. Following its opening on 1 July 1886, the bank's first decades of operation were restricted by its limited financial capacity; it was little more than a savings and loan society.
History of Las Rozas According to some historians Las Rozas could to be the old one Miacum, name of the one that the city drifts of Madrid, for which would be able to have its origin in the century III. Las Rozas is found them on the road that carried since Segovia to Titulcia, for which its origin would be able due to this circumstance.
History of Las Vegas Las Vegas, Nevada was given its name by Spaniards in the Antonio Armijo party in 1829, who used the water in the area while heading north and west along the Old Spanish Trail from New Mexico. In the 1800s, areas of the Las Vegas Valley contained artesian wells that supported extensive green areas, hence the name Las Vegas, Spanish for The Meadows.
History of Latin Latin is a member of the family of Italic languages, and its alphabet, the Latin alphabet, emerged from the Old Italic alphabets, which in turn were derived from the Greek and Phoenician scripts. Latin was first brought to the Italian peninsula in the 9th or 8th century BC by migrants from the north, who settled in the Latium region, specifically around the River Tiber, where the Roman civilization first developed.
History of Latin America Latin America refers to countries in the Americas where Latin-derived (Romance) languages are spoken; these countries generally lie south of the United States. By extension, some, particularly in the United States, incorrectly apply the term to the whole region south of the United Statesâ€”including non-Romance-speaking countries such as Suriname, Jamaica, and Guyana.
History of Lebanon The history of Lebanon is almost as old as the earliest evidence of humankind. Its geographic position as a crossroads linking the Mediterranean Basin with the great Asian hinterland has conferred on it a cosmopolitan character and a multicultural legacy.
History of Lebanon under Arab rule The history of Lebanon under Arab rule traces the course of human events in the section of the Middle East now known as Lebanon. Before the Arab conquest, the area had been under successive rule by various ancient and classical powers including the Persians, Ancient Romans, and, finally, Byzantines.
History of Leicestershire Leicestershire was recorded in the Domesday Book in four wapentakes: Guthlaxton, Framland, Goscote and Gartree. These later became hundreds, with the division of Goscote into West Goscote and East Goscote, and the addition of Sparkenhoe hundred.
History of Lesotho Basutoland â€” now known as Lesotho (pronounced ) â€” had been populated by Khoi Khoi (Qhuaique) for possibly as long as 40,000 years. At some stage during their migration south from a tertiary dispersal area Bantu speaking peoples came to settle the lands that now make up Lesotho as well as a more extensive territory of fertile lands that surround modern day Lesotho.
History of Lethbridge The city of Lethbridge, Alberta developed from drift mines opened by Nicholas Sheran (1874) and the North Western Coal and Navigation Company (1882), whose president was William Lethbridge. Previous to this, the area now known as Lethbridge was part of the territory of the Blackfoot Confederacy: the Kainai, the Piikani and the Siksika.
History of Liberia The History of Liberia (after the arrival of Europeans) is unique in Africa as it started neither as a native state nor as a European colony, but began in 1821 when private societies began founding colonies for free blacks from the United States on the coast of West Africa.
History of Libetarianism The term "libertarianism" in the above political sense has been in widespread use since the 1950s. Originally, in the 18th century, it referred to the philosophical doctrine of free will, as opposed to that of determinism.
History of Libya The history of Libya - much of it unwritten - includes the history of its rich mix of peoples added to the indigenous Berber tribes. For most of their history, the peoples of Libya have been subjected to varying degrees of foreign control.
History of Libya as Italian Colony The attempted Italian colonization of the Ottoman provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica was never wholly successful. On October 3, 1911, the Italians attacked Tripoli, claiming somewhat disingenuously to be liberating Libya from Ottoman rule.
History of Liechtenstein The Principality of Liechtenstein has enjoyed a stable, uninterrupted history. Liechtenstein's borders have remained unchanged since 1434, when the Rhine established the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the Swiss cantons.
History of Limerick The history of Limerick (Irish: Luimneach), the fourth largest city in the Republic of Ireland and one of Ireland's major cultural and industrial centres, stretches back to its establishment by the Vikings as a walled city on "King's Island" (an island in the River Shannon) in 812, and its charter in 1197. A great castle was built on the orders of King John in 1200.
History of Lincolnshire Lincolnshire, England derived from the merging of the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough Stamford. For some time the entire county was called 'Lindsey', and it is recorded as such in the Domesday Book.