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Prodrome In medicine, a prodrome is an early symptom indicating the development of a disease, or indicating that a disease attack is imminent. For example fever, malaise, headache and anorexia are part of the prodrome for the mumps.
Produce Produce is a general term for a group of farm-produced goods, generally limited to fruits and vegetables. More specifically, the term "produce" often implies that the foods are fresh and generally in the same state as when they were harvested.
Produce Marketing Association The Produce Marketing Association (PMA) is an American trade association of produce producers. PMA was founded in 1949 and an affiliate, the Produce Electronic Identification Board, developed the current numbering system of Price Look-Up Numbers used in Canada and the US.
Producer Studies Media Producer Studies research the creators of media, such as Hollywood TV Producers (see Cantor, 1971) and Journalists (see Eliasoph, 1988 or Soley, 1992) among others, to investigate their processes in creating and forming media. Producer studies may employ participant observation as a research method, which grants the reseacher access to the producer's processes and interactions.
Producerism Producerism, sometimes referred to as "producer radicalism," is a syncretic ideology of populist economic nationalism which holds that the productive forces of society - the ordinary worker, the small businessman, and the entrepreneur, are being held back by parasitical elements at both the top and bottom of the social structure.
Producers Guild of America Producers Guild of America (PGA) is a trade organization representing television producers, film producers and New Media producers in the United States. The PGA's membership includes over 2,800 members of the producing team worldwide.
Producers Releasing Corporation One of the larger Hollywood production conglomerates of Poverty Row of the late 30s-mid 40s (along with Republic Pictures and Monogram Pictures and smaller outfits) PRC, as it was commonly known, intentionally made mostly small-budget B-movies. The productions were often so cheap (and, according to critics, often so bad) that the Hollywood community took to claiming that PRC stood for "Pretty Rotten Crap".
Product (category theory) In category theory, one defines products to generalize constructions such as the cartesian product of sets, the direct product of groups, the direct product of rings and the product of topological spaces. Essentially, the product of a family of objects is the "most general" object which admits a morphism to each of the given objects.
Product (chemistry) A product is a substance that forms as a result of chemical reaction. While the end product of some chemical reactions may be the result of a relatively rapid reaction, nanoseconds to seconds, chemical equilibria in complex systems may require years or even centuries to be established.
Product (mathematics) In mathematics, a product is the result of multiplying, or an expression that identifies factors to be multiplied. The order in which real or complex numbers are multiplied has no bearing on the product; this is known as the commutative law of multiplication.
Product 19 Product 19 is a breakfast cereal made by Kellogg's. Introduced in 1967, it consists of lightly sweetened flakes made of corn, oats, wheat, and rice, and has an ever-so-slight sour bite to its taste as well, making it a favorite among many cold-cereal eaters.
Product activation Product activation is a license validation procedure required by some computer software programs. Specifically, product activation refers to a method where a software application hashes hardware serial numbers and an ID number specific to the product's license (a product key) to generate a unique Installation ID.
Product bundling Product bundling is a marketing strategy that involves offering several products for sale as one combined product. This strategy is very common in the software business (for example: bundle a word processor, a spreadsheet, and a database into a single office suite), and in the fast food industry in which multiple items are combined into a complete meal.
Product catalogue management Product catalogue management refers to the support of product management in the management of product information in a structured and consistent way in the form of catalogues. This in order to create a cost-effective means to help customers and channel partners understand what the functionalities and usability of certain products or services are.
Product certification Product certification or product qualification is the cornerstone of all bounding and the process of certifying that a certain product has passed performance and/or quality assurance tests or qualification requirements stipulated in regulations such as a building code and nationally accredited test standards, or that it complies with a set of regulations governing quality and/or minimum performance requirements.
Product cipher In cryptography, a product cipher is a popular type of block cipher that works by executing in sequence a number of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. Product ciphers usually consist of iterations of several rounds of the same algorithm.
Product Consultant Product Consultants are the wine experts for Vintages, the fine and rare wine division of the LCBO. Nearly unique in the wine industry for their broad range of expertise covering wines, spirits, and beer from scores of countries both Old World and New, Product Consultants undergo perhaps the most rigorous tasting regiment of any retail beverage alcohol staff worldwide, tasting upwards of 150 new products (or new vintages of products) every fortnight.
Product detector A product detector is a type of demodulator used for AM and SSB signals. Rather than converting the envelope of the signal into the decoded waveform like an envelope detector, the product detector takes the product of the modulated signal and a local oscillator, hence the name.
Product differentiation In marketing, product differentiation is the modification of a product to make it more attractive to the target market. This involves differentiating it from competitors' products as well as one's own product offerings.
Product Data Management Product Data Management (PDM) is a category of computer software used to control data related to products. PDM creates and manages relations between sets of data that define a product, and store those relationships in a database.
Product engineering Product Engineering refers to the process of designing and developing an object, device, assembly, or system such that it be produced as an item for sale, rent or lease in a more-or-less standard form through some production manufacturing process. Product Engineering usually entails activity dealing with issues of cost, produce-ability, quality, performance, reliability, serviceability, user features and ease of use, and other factors.
Product feeds A product feed is a file containing information about the products listed on your site. Product feeds are used by e-commerce companies to provide information about products in an online store to search engines, product comparison websites, and other similar aggregators of e-commerce information.
Product finder Product finders are information systems that help consumers to identify products within a large palette of similar alternative products. Product finders differ in complexity, the more complex among them being a special case of decision support systems.
Product forecasting Product forecasting is the science of predicting the degree of success a new product will enjoy in the marketplace. To do this, the forecasting model must take into account such things as product awareness, distribution, price, fulfilling unmeet needs and competitive alternatives.
Product Family Engineering Product families/lines are quite common in our daily lives, but before a product family can be successfully established, an extensive process has to be followed. This process is known as product family engineering, product line engineering, and software product lines.
Product Information Management Product Information Management or PIM refers to the providing of product information for use in one or more output media and/or distribution channels, potentially involving multiple geographic locations. PIM relies on media-independent, multi-lingual administration, maintenance and modification of product information within a centralized catalogue to provide consistently accurate information via any channel without prohibitive cost in terms of resources.
Product liability Product liability encompasses a number of legal claims that allow an injured party to recover financial compensation from the manufacturer or seller of a product. In the United States, the claims most commonly associated with product liability are negligence, strict liability, breach of warranty, and various consumer protection claims.
Product lifecycle management Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design and manufacture, to service and disposal . It is one of the four cornerstones of a corporation's information technology structure .
Product lining Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. Unlike product bundling, where several products are combined into one, lining involves offering several related products individually.
Product marketing Product Marketing deals with the first of the "4P"'s of marketing, which are Product, Pricing, Placement, and Promotion. Product marketing, as opposed to product management, deals with more outbound marketing tasks.
Product measure In mathematics, given two measurable spaces and measures on them, one can obtain the product measurable space and the product measure on that space. Conceptually, this is similar to defining the Cartesian product of sets and the product topology of two topological spaces.
Product Manufacturing Information Product and Manufacturing Information, or PMI, is used in 3D computer-aided design (CAD) and Collaborative Product Development systems to convey information on the design of a productâ€™s components for manufacturing. This includes data such as geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, 3D annotation (text) and dimensions, surface finish, and material specifications.
Product naming convention A product naming convention is a method of naming products so that customers and industry can understand or identify a product quickly. Use of numbers and letters can help sort out sections or parts of a name.
Product of rings In mathematics, it is possible to combine several rings into one large product ring. This is done as follows: if I is some index set and Ri is a ring for every i in I, then the cartesian product Î i in I Ri can be turned into a ring by defining the operations coordinatewise, i.
Product placement Product placement (PPL) is a promotional tactic used by marketers in which a real commercial product is used in fictional or non-fictional media, and the presence of the product is a result of an economic exchange. When featuring a product is not part of an economic exchange, it is called a product plug.
Product recall A product recall is a request to return to the maker a batch or an entire production run of a product, usually due to the discovery of safety issues. The recall is an effort to limit liability for corporate negligence (which can cause costly legal penalties) and to improve or avoid damage to publicity.
Product requirements document A product requirements document (PRD) is used in product marketing to plan and execute new products. A PRD is often created after a marketing requirements document (MRD) has been written and been given approval by management.
Product sabotage In marketing and retail, product sabotage is a practice used to encourage the customer to purchase a more profitable product or service as opposed to cheaper alternatives. It is also the practice where a company attempts to aim different prices at different types of customer.
Product software implementation method A product software implementation method is a systematically structured approach to effectively integrate a software based service or component into the workflow of an organizational structure or an individual end-user.
Product support Product Support is a service provided by many retailers of various products, primarily electronics, that provides the end-user with a resource for information regarding the product, and help if the product should malfunction. Product Support can be found in most manuals for products in the form of a phone number, website address, or physical location.
Product Structure Modeling The structure of a product is a breakdown of the product in several items and parts, together with a relationship between them. Product structure modeling goes beyond this concept and provides an integrated model to support all of the product life cycle aims based on a common logical framework, which integrates all the data generated throughout the product life cycle.
Product Support Services Product Support Services, more commonly referred to as PSS, is the Microsoft business unit with primary responsibility for responding to end-user and partner requests for assistance with the company's products and services.
Product visualization Product Visualization involves visualization software technology for the viewing and manipulation of 3D models, technical drawing and other related documentation of manufactured components and large assemblies of products. It is a key part of Product Lifecycle Management.
Product-Market Growth Matrix The Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix is a marketing tool created by Igor Ansoff. The matrix allows marketers to consider ways to grow the business via existing and/or new products, in existing and/or new markets â€“ there are four possible product/market combinations.
Product/process distinction The product/process distinction is a method used by the World Trade Organization (WTO) to determine whether or not a complaint filed by an importing nation is valid and warrants trade barriers against the exporting nation. Under WTO rules, an importing nation can lodge a complaint with the WTO that the exporting nation uses methods for obtaining or producing the good in question that an importing nation finds to be immoral or unethical.
Production artist A production artist is an entry level job position in a creative profession. The job title originated at advertising agencies, assigning what was known as paste-up work (now prepress production) to the position.
Production assistant A production assistant, also known as a PA, is a job title used in filmmaking for a person responsible for various odd jobs, such as stopping traffic, acting as couriers, getting items from craft service, etc. They also do various administrative tasks, such as filing, photocopying, typing/Word processing, taking/making telephone calls and organising the diary for the day.
Production battery electric vehicle Production battery electric vehicles (BEVs) like the GM EV1 and Chevrolet S10 EV, Chrysler TEVan, Honda EV Plus, Ford Ranger EV, Nissan Altra, Toyota RAV4 EV, and Solectria Force have been made available to the consumer market in very limited quantities and locations. Even though all were placed very few were ever actually for sale, and so it's very unfair to say that there is no market.
Production board A traditional production board or production strip board is a filmmaking term for a cardboard or wooden chart holding colour-coded strips of paper, each containing information about a scene in the script. The strips can then be rearranged and laid out sequentially to represent the order one wants to film in (most films are shot "out of sequence," meaning that filming does not begin with scene 1 and end with the last scene).
Production budget A film production budget determines how much money will be spend on the entire film project. It involves the identification and estimation of cost items for each phase of filmmaking (development, pre-production, production, post-production and distribution).
Production code number The production code number or simply production code (PC) is an alphanumeric designation used to uniquely identify episodes within a television series. It is also broadly used for other identification purposes where a unique production number is desirable; for example, automobile manufacturers use production numbers as part of the vehicle identification number.
Production company Production company refers to a company responsible for the development and physical production of a film or television program. The production company may be a small company who sells its film to a film studio, or it may be the studio itself.
Production Code The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. The Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA), which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), adopted the code in 1930, began effectively enforcing it in 1934, and abandoned it in 1967 in favor of the subsequent MPAA film rating system.
Production designer Production designer is a term used in the movie and television industries to refer to the person responsible for the overall look of a film or TV movie. Production Designers have one of the key creative roles in the creation of motion pictures and television.
Production Design of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy The Lord of the Rings film trilogy began its production design in August 1997. Peter Jackson required complete realism and plausibility in his vision of Middle-earth, and hired Weta Workshop to create the various pieces of armour, weapons, prosphetics and creatures seen in the trilogy, as well as aged costumes and historically influenced sets.
Production engineer The production engineer (also known as an A1 in North America) is the person in theatre who is in charge of keeping the audio integrity of the production. This person may be responsible for anything and everything from the mixing of microphones to the playback of prerecorded sound effects and music to actually applying body mics to the actors, as well as maintaining the communication systems such as intercom and monitors.
Production equipment control Production equipment control involves production equipment that resides in the shop floor of a manufacturing company and its purpose is to produce goods of a wanted quality when provided with production resources of a required quality. In modern production lines the production equipment is fully automated using industrial control methods and involves limited unskilled labour participation.
Production function In microeconomics, a production function asserts that the maximum output of a technologically-determined production process is a mathematical function of input factors of production. Considering the set of all technically feasible combinations of output and inputs, only the combinations encompassing a maximum output for a specified set of inputs would constitute the production function.
Production line A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory whereby materials are put through a refining process to produce an end-product that is suitable for onward consumption; or components are assembled to make a finished article.
Production logo A production logo is used by movie studios and television production companies to brand what they produce. Production logos are usually seen at the beginning of a theatrical movie (an opening logo), or at the end of a television program or TV movie (a closing logo).
Production management Theatrical production management is a sub-division of stagecraft. The production management team (consisting of a production manager and any number of assistants) is responsible for realizing the visions of the Producer and the Director or Choreographer within constraints of technical possibility.
Production Manager (band) The Production Manager of a band is in charge of the technical crew. The technical crew moves independently of the band because the technical crew must arrive at the gig location by the morning of the show to start setting up the equipment.
Production of antibiotics The production of antibiotics has been widespread since the pioneering efforts of Florey and Chain in 1939. The importance of antibiotics to medicine has led to much research into discovering and producing them.
Production office A film Production Office is the administrative office responsible for managing a film production. The office is responsible to the Film Producer and includes the Production Manager, Assistant Director and one or more Production Assistants.
Production orientation A production orientation dominated business thought from the beginning of capitalism to the mid 1950's, and some argue it still exists in some industries. Business concerned itself primarily with production, manufacturing, and efficiency issues.
Production possibilities frontier In economics, production possibilities curve (PPC) or the â€śtransformation curveâ€ť is a graph that depicts the trade-off between any two items produced. It indicates the opportunity cost of increasing one item's production in terms of the units of the other forgone.
Production Planning Manufacturing planning and control entails the acquisition and allocation of limited resources to production activities so as to satisfy customer demand over a specified time horizon. As such, planning and control problems are inherently optimization problems, where the objective is to develop a plan that meets demand at minimum cost or that fills the demand that maximizes profit.
Production report A production report (PR) is filmmaking term for the form filled out each day of production of a movie or television show to summarize what occurred that day. There is no standard template for a production report and each show usually has an original template, often created before production begins by one of the assistant directors.
Production rule While production rule has approximately the same meaning in two cases, the first usage puts more emphasis on the fact that it is a cognitive process. The second one can also mean an abstract computational process of grammar-rule expansion.
Production show *A type of theater show, common on the Las Vegas Strip, that is characterized by its large cast and entertainment value. A list of shows playing in Las Vegas includes 5 different Cirque du Soleil shows, Mamma Mia!
Production sound mixer The production sound mixer or location sound recordist is the member of a film crew responsible for recording all sound and sound effects on set during the photography of a motion picture for later inclusion in the finished product, or for reference to be used by the sound designer, sound effects editors or foley artists. This requires choice and deployment of microphones, choice of recording media, and mixing of audio signals in real time.
Production string The production string is a part of an oil well that is composed of the production tubing and other completion components and serves as the conduit through which the production fluid flows from the oil reservoir to the surface through the wellhead. It's purpose is to both contain the fluids from contaminating the environment or eroding the other well structures, such as the casing.
Production strip A traditional production board is a cardboard or wooden chart holding colour-coded strips of paper, each containing information about a scene in the script. A modern version will probably be printed using computer software.
Production system A production system (or production rule system) is a computer program typically used to provide some form of artificial intelligence, which consists primarily of a set of rules about behavior. These rules, termed productions, are a basic representation found useful in AI planning, expert systems and action selection.
Production team A production team is the group of technical staff who produce a play, television show, or film. Examples of the titles of members of a production team are the director, sound engineer, producer, designers, stage managers, technicians, etc.
Production team (China) A production team (Chinese:ç”źç”ŁéšŠ; pinyin:shÄ“ng chÇŽn duĂ¬) was formerly the basic accounting and farm production unit in the people's commune system in People's Republic of China from 1958 to 1984. Production teams were largely disbanded during the agricultural reforms of 1982-1985.
Production Way-University Station Production Way-University Station is a station on the Millennium Line of the Skytrain system in Greater Vancouver, Canada. It is located at the intersection of Lougheed Highway and Production Way in Burnaby, British Columbia.
Production, costs, and pricing In microeconomics, production is the act of making things, in particular the act of making products that will be traded or sold commercially. Production decisions concentrate on what goods to produce, how to produce them, the costs of producing them, and optimizing the mix of resource inputs used in their production.
Productionisation Productionisation is the process of turning a prototype of a design into a version that can be more easily mass produced. It is almost always a necessary step in the development of any product, since it is rare that the initial design is free from flaws or construction methods which make it difficult or more expensive to manufacture.
Productive and unproductive labour Productive and unproductive labour were concepts used in classical political economy mainly in the 18th and 19th century, which survive today to some extent in modern management discussions, economic sociology and Marxist or Marxian economic analysis. The concepts strongly influenced the construction of national accounts in the USSR and other Soviet-type societies.
Productive efficiency Productive efficiency is when the economy is working on its production possibility frontier (PPF). This is when production is achieved at the lowest cost possible, and is when Average Cost is at the lowest point on the AC curve.
Productive forces Productive forces, "productive powers" or "forces of production" [in German, ProduktivkrĂ¤fte] is a central concept in Marxism and historical materialism. In Karl Marx and Frederick Engels's critique of political economy, it refers to the combination of the means of labor (machinery, infrastructure and so on) with human labour power.
Productivism (art) Productivism was an art movement founded by a group of Constructivist artists in post-Revolutionary Russia who believed that art should have a practical, socially useful role as a facet of industrial production. The group formed to contradict Naum Gabo's assertion that Constructivism should be devoted to exploration of abstract space and rhythm.
Productivity In economics, productivity is the amount of output created (in terms of goods produced or services rendered) per unit input used. For instance, labour productivity is typically measured as output per worker or output per labour-hour.
Productivity (linguistics) In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation. Since use to produce novel (new, non-established) structures is the clearest proof of usage of a grammatical process, the evidence most often appealed to as establishing productivity is the appearance of novel forms of the type the process leads one to expect, and many people would limit the definition offered above to exclude use of a grammatical process that does not result in a novel structure.
Productivity paradox The productivity paradox (also known as the Solow computer paradox) is the observation made in Computer Supported Cooperative Work and other business process analysis that, as new information technology is introduced, worker productivity may go down, not up. It was especially common in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Productivity world Productivity World is a term used by William Easterly to describe that relative productivity among Factors of production is the same in the sectors across countries, but rich countries have absolute productivity advantage.
Prodynorphin Prodynorphin is a opioid polypeptide hormone involved with chemical signal transduction and cell communication. The gene for prodynorphin is expressed in the endometrium and the striatum, and its gene map locus is 20pter-p12.
ProDigi Mitsubishi's ProDigi is a professional audio, reel-to-reel, digital audio tape format with a stationary head position, similar to Sony's Digital Audio Stationary Head, which competed against ProDigi when the format was available in the mid 1980's through the early 1990's. Audio was digitally recorded linearly on the tape and is guarded by a powerful error correction scheme of cyclic redundancy checks to ensure integrity of the signal even if data is lost during playback.
Proemial relation Gotthard Gunther introduced the term proemial relation in his 1970 paper "Cognition and Volition". Meaning "to preface", it specifically refers to the intercoherence (prerequisite relation) of subject and object.
Profane illumination Profane illumination is a term used by critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin to describe the central component of Surrealist experience, perception, and art in his 1929 essay â€śSurrealism: The Last Snapshot of the European Intelligentsia.â€ť It describes the process by which, sometimes but not always aided by dreams or hashish, a person perceives the most ordinary, overlooked objects of everyday reality â€“ from obsolete train stations to out of place arcades â€“ as uncanny, supernatural, and irrational.
Profane use Profane use is a term used in the Roman Catholic Church to refer to closed parish churches that will no longer be used as churches. This is often done in preparation to sell the former church building to another party.
Profanity A profanity (or bad word, swear word, curse word, cuss word, dirty word, or collectively foul, bad or strong language) under current colloquial use is a word, expression, gesture, or other usage which is socially constructed as insulting, rude or vulgar. The extent to which a profanity is considered to be in some way disagreeable or objectionable depends on context, timing and various other factors.
Profession A profession is an occupation that requires extensive training and the study and mastery of specialized knowledge, and usually has a professional association, ethical code and process of certification or licensing. Examples are: librarianship, accounting, law, teaching, architecture, medicine, finance, the military, the clergy, nursing, those who work or perform research in the various sciences, or engineering.
Profession (religious) Profession, in a religious sense, is a public avowal of faith according to a traditional formula. In this sense, a "professing Christian" is one who publicly claims to be following and supporting the Christian faith, usually according to one of the formal creeds, such as the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene creed, or specific denominational confessions such as the Lutheran Augsburg confession or the Reformed Westminster Confession of Faith.
Professional administration Professional administration is the study of contemporary organizational principles with an emphasis on their applications in the modern workplace whether in the administrative and leadership skills of private, public organization, and non-profit organizations. This discipline is closely associated with public administration.
Professional amateurs Professional amateurs (also Pro-Ams or ProAms) is a conceptual term to describe a blurring between the distinction of professional and amateur, within any endeavour that could be called professional, such as writing, sports, computer programming, music, film, etc.
Professional and Amateur Pinball Association The Professional and Amateur Pinball Association (PAPA) is an organization supporting the game of pinball as a recreational and competitive sport. PAPA is currently owned and operated by Kevin Martin and is based in Scott Township, Pennsylvania, just outside of Pittsburgh.
Professional and Linguistic Assessment Board test The Professional and Linguistic Assessment Board test (PLAB) is the assessment procedure conducted by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom that is required for overseas doctors outside the European Union before they can practice medicine in the UK.